Living things interact with their environments. This includes cells, which take in nutrients and expel waste. They do this through active and passive transport. Active transport requires energy, while passive transport does not. Examples of active transport include cells taking in glucose against a concentration gradient. Meaning that the cell must use energy to bring […]

The Archimedes Principle

Measuring the volume of a regular-shaped (cube object) is easy. All you have to do is multiply the length times the height times the width. But how do you measure the volume of an irregularly shaped object? How do you determine the volume of a rock, a toy, or a crown? The solution to this […]


Mixture A mixture is a combination of two or more substances that are physically combined but not chemically bonded. Keep reading to learn about the different types of mixtures, how they are made, and some examples. In science, when two or more substances are combined physically but not chemically, this is called a mixture. For […]


When atoms come together, they make a molecule. For example, you are made of many different types of molecules–trillions and trillions to be exact! Sure, that probably sounds like a lot till you realize that EVERYTHING around is also made up of molecules. So the couch you’re sitting on? Yup…molecules. The computer screen you’re looking […]


Introduction The minuscule particles known as atoms are the foundation of all matter. Atoms bind with other atoms to from molecules, but they cannot be physically subdivided into anything smaller. The word ‘atom’ has its origins in Greek, from the word atomos which means “uncuttable” or “indivisible”. The ancient Greeks were pioneers in thinking of […]

Phases / States of Matter

All matter exists in one of three phases or states. These phases are solid, liquid, or gas. A fourth state also exists, which is plasma, but in this article we will focus only on the first three, since they are far more common. Most of the matter in the Universe exists in a gas state. […]

Acids And Bases

One of the most common areas of chemistry that people interact with is using acids and bases. Acids can be found in lemons, sports drinks, pickles, and more! Bases can be found in detergents, ammonia cleaners, smoke detectors, and even baking soda. This article will explain how acids and bases react to one-another. Then it […]

The Earth’s Cycles

For hundreds of millions of years, the chemicals and elements found on Earth have remained relatively constant, or in other words, they have changed very little. The amount of one element or chemical in the Earth’s surface is practically the same as it was many millions of years ago. This consistency is one of the […]

Living Things Need Water

Some of the Earth’s water supply is temporarily locked up within the many lifeforms found across the Earth’s biosphere. This water makes up a majority of most organisms, and is a critical component, making the processes of life possible. Some organisms are made up of 95% water, while almost all the rest are more than […]