Sharks are a group of predatory fish that have been around for over 400 million years. These fascinating creatures are found in oceans around the world, and they are known for their streamlined bodies, sharp teeth, and powerful jaws. There are over 500 species of sharks, and they come in a wide range of sizes, […]

Living Things Have Needs

Living things have certain needs that must be met in order for them to thrive. These needs might include air, water, food, and shelter. All living things need these things to survive. Plants need air, water, and sunlight to grow and thrive. They get these needs from their environment. For example, plants need light in […]

Plants And Animals Communicate

Plants and animals communicate with each other and with other species in many different ways. Here are some examples of how plants and animals communicate: Animal calls: Many animals communicate with each other using vocalizations, or calls. For example, birds use calls to attract mates, warn of danger, and communicate with their young. Dogs also […]


Evolution is a foundational principle within biology that forms the basis for many other theories. The theory of evolution was first described by Charles Darwin, a scientist who lived during the 19th century. Darwin’s theory proposed that all species on Earth have descended from a common ancestor and that new species arise through the process […]

What Causes Tides?

Everything in the Universe has gravity, including you! Gravity attracts objects toward each other. The larger an object is, the more gravity it has. For example, a star, like the Sun has significantly more gravity than an asteroid. Like all fields, including magnetism, static electricity, and yes, gravity, the attractive force increases the closer you […]

The Animal Kingdom

The Animal Kingdom is a vast and varied place, full of creatures of all shapes and sizes. But what exactly is an animal? Animals are heterotrophs, meaning that they cannot produce their own food and must instead rely on other sources for sustenance. This differentiates them from plants and other organisms which are able to […]

Biotic And Abiotic Factors In An Environment

Living things interact with their environments in order to thrive and live. Some of the things they interact with are biotic, while some are abiotic. Biotic and abiotic are just big science words that mean living and non-living. Biotic factors are living organisms that affect an ecosystem. They can be plants, animals, or other organisms. […]

Geographers Classify Living Things Differently Than Biologists

On the Earth today there are approximately 600,000 different types of plants and over one million different kinds of animals. Remember that one of the goals of geographers is to understand how lifeforms are distributed throughout the Earth. With nearly 2 million different types of lifeforms on Earth, the task of mapping out and understanding […]

The Earth’s Cycles

For hundreds of millions of years, the chemicals and elements found on Earth have remained relatively constant, or in other words, they have changed very little. The amount of one element or chemical in the Earth’s surface is practically the same as it was many millions of years ago. This consistency is one of the […]

The Earth’s Surface Water

Water found on the surface of continents and islands is referred to as surface water. Surface water makes up only one fourth of one percent, or 0.25%, of the total water found on Earth. This water is found in rivers, streams, lakes, springs and swamps, and is extremely important to the lives of all land […]